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The city is recognised for its appreciation of Rabindra sangeet (songs written by Rabindranath Tagore) and Indian classical music, with important concerts and recitals, such as Dover Lane Music Conference, being held throughout the year; Bengali popular music, including baul folk ballads, kirtans and Gajan festival music; and modern music, including Bengali-language adhunik songs. [80][81] In 2009, Severe Cyclone Aila and in 2020 Extremely Severe Cyclone Amphan caused widespread damage to Kolkata by bringing catastrophic winds and torrential rainfall. [1], In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. [126]:57–59 Tropical diseases like malaria, dengue and chikungunya are prevalent in Kolkata, though their incidence is decreasing. [172], Due to its diverse and abundant public transportation, privately owned vehicles are not as common in Kolkata as in other major Indian cities. ); 15.49% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 83.69% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries). [21][73] In the 2000s, Sector V in Bidhannagar developed into a business hub for information technology and telecommunication companies. As of 2010[update], the Kolkata urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government. It was the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government, during which Kolkata was a key base for Indian communism. [264], The most popular sports in Kolkata are football and cricket. [148] As of 2012[update], the city had 16 fire stations. The south suburban areas like Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Rajpur Sonarpur, Baruipur etc. [135][136][137] The Kolkata Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the West Bengal Ministry of Home Affairs. [21] The Maidan is a large open field in the heart of the city that has been called the "lungs of Kolkata"[71] and accommodates sporting events and public meetings. [245] Another new style, jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism. [63] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone III.[64]. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include the Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation and various private operators. Unlike most parts of India, the residents show significant passion for football. [109] The final population totals of census 2011 stated the population of city as 4,496,694. [225][226] Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art. [37] A census in 1837 records the population of the city proper as 229,700, of which the British residents made up only 3,138. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. KOLKATA: A 40-year-old history professor of a reputable south Kolkata college — daughter of a retired Kolkata Police inspector — was allegedly attacked by … As of 2008[update], sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide annual concentration were within the national ambient air quality standards of India, but respirable suspended particulate matter levels were high, and on an increasing trend for five consecutive years, causing smog and haze. Often, in April–June, the city is struck by heavy rains or dusty squalls that are followed by thunderstorms or hailstorms, bringing cooling relief from the prevailing humidity. It was founded in 1793, making it one of the oldest rackets clubs in the world, and the first in the Indian subcontinent. [58] From the 1960s to the late 1990s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated. [42], The partition of Bengal in 1905 along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British. This Plot is available at a price of Rs 2.0 Cr. However, road transport slows down during office hour rush. This land has a dimension of 22.0 mt length 100.0 mt width. and the Mohammedan Sporting Club. Kolkata: The city will see the first library for children on tram being launched today, to celebrate Children’s Day, commemorating India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s birthday. The demonym for residents of Kolkata are Calcuttan and Kolkatan. [31]:3 The number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century. North Vs South Kolkata is a decade-long debate, which every citizen of Kolkata is extremely passionate about. [58] The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city". [142][failed verification] Roughly 95% of the 4,000 tonnes of refuse produced daily by the city is transported to the dumping grounds in Dhapa, which is east of the town. [112][116], Bengali, the official state language, is the dominant language in Kolkata. For other uses, see, The Kolkata metropolitan area also includes portions of. In 1883, Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India. As in many other Indian cities, information technology became a high-growth sector in Kolkata starting in the late 1990s; the city's IT sector grew at 70% per annum—a rate that was twice the national average. According to a 2013 survey conducted by the International Association of Public Transport, in terms of a public transport system, Kolkata ranks among the top of the six Indian cities surveyed. [131] The Kolkata Municipal Corporation was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. [150]:25–26:179 with Kolkata being the first city in India to have cell phone and 4G connectivity, the GSM and CDMA cellular coverage is extensive. Kolkata also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006. At approximately one in the afternoon, all cars are directed in the opposite direction. A demographically diverse city, the culture of Kolkata features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods (paras) and freestyle conversations (adda). Though Bengali women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. This east–west line will connect Salt Lake with Howrah The 2 lines cover a distance of 33.02 km (21 mi). [170][171] In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws and hand-pulled rickshaws are patronised by the public for short trips. This is Kolkata Police Road Map with the location of various Durga Puja of North Kolkata. [168][169] Hired public conveyances include auto rickshaws, which often ply specific routes, and yellow metered taxis. Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly 7,500 m (24,600 ft) above the crystalline basement; of these the top 350–450 m (1,150–1,480 ft) is Quaternary, followed by 4,500–5,500 m (14,760–18,040 ft) of Tertiary sediments, 500–700 m (1,640–2,300 ft) trap wash of Cretaceous trap and 600–800 m (1,970–2,620 ft) Permian-Carboniferous Gondwana rocks. It was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William which was established in 1774. [107] The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal; these men commonly leave their families behind. Jadavpur University is known for its arts, science, and engineering faculties. [76] The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season. North Kolkata: It comprises of Cossipore, Chitpur, Sinthee, Baranagar, Bonhoohgly, Dunlop, Jorasanko, Sovabazar, Ultadanga and Dum Dum. The city's main bus terminals are located at Esplanade and Babughat. Formerly Calcutta, capital city of West Bengal, India, "Calcutta" redirects here. The population (4,486,679) and hospital beds (27,687) have been used to derive this rate. “Compared to many other places in India, especially compared to north and north-west India, Kolkata is safer for women. Kolkata: Large parts of south Kolkata experienced waterlogging after heavy showers lashed the southern parts of the city on Tuesday. Another business hub is the area south of Park Street, which comprises thoroughfares such as Chowringhee Road, Camac Street, Wood Street, Loudon Street, Shakespeare Sarani and AJC Bose Road. [39], By the 1850s, Calcutta had two areas: White Town, which was primarily British and centred on Chowringhee and Dalhousie Square; and Black Town, mainly Indian and centred on North Calcutta. The agency overseeing the latter, the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Kolkata. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is Kolkata's most important and largest festival; it is an occasion for glamorous celebrations and artistic decorations. “So far the situation has been normal. Kolkata's Netaji Indoor Stadium served as host of the 1981 Asian Basketball Championship, where India's national basketball team finished 5th, ahead of teams that belong to Asia's basketball elite, such as Iran. B. D. Bagh (formerly known as Dalhousie Square). [174] As of 2004[update], after adjusting for population density, the city's "road space" was only 6% compared to 23% in Delhi and 17% in Mumbai. [126]:105 In 2005, Kolkata had the highest percentage (55%) among the surveyed cities of anaemic women, while 20% of the men in Kolkata were anaemic. Priyam Ghose Recommended for you. The oldest is at the Royal Calcutta Golf Club, the first golf club built outside the United Kingdom. As in the rest of India, cricket is popular in Kolkata and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city. Or as said in GOT, ‘The north remembers’. [125][96]:5 The unauthorised slums (devoid of basic services provided by the municipality) are occupied by squatters who started living on encroached lands—mainly along canals, railway lines and roads. [19] The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 led to a massive influx of thousands of refugees, many of them penniless, that strained Kolkata's infrastructure. Pollution is a major concern in Kolkata. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities. For almost half the day, most roads, streets and lanes see vehicles go just the one way, either from north to south or vice versa. [69] The West Bengal Secretariat, General Post Office, Reserve Bank of India, Calcutta High Court, Lalbazar Police Headquarters and several other government and private offices are located there. [176] The Kolkata–Delhi and Kolkata–Chennai prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral, and National Highway 12 start from the city. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. [266][267] Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia. North Kolkata Vs South Kolkata | Priyam Ghose | Comedy Video - Duration: 3:04. [194][195] Kolkata is one of the districts in India with a high number of people with AIDS; it has been designated a district prone to high risk. [237] Coupled with social reforms led by Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda and others, this constituted a major part of the Bengal Renaissance. [95] As of 2001[update], around 0.81% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc. [205] An Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST. Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. [126]:48, Among the surveyed cities, Kolkata stood second (5%) for children who had not had any vaccinations under the Universal Immunization Programme as of 2005[update]. a Aamsuter Chatni Vs Pepper Chatni [110] Among Kolkata's smaller communities are Chinese, Tamils, Nepalis, Pathans/Afghans (locally known as Kabuliwala[111]) Odias, Telugus, Assamese, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Greeks, Tibetans, Maharashtrians, Konkanis, Malayalees, Punjabis and Parsis. Bagh, formerly known as Dalhousie Square, and the Esplanade on its east; Strand Road is on its west. [215] Kolkata has been called the "City of Furious, Creative Energy"[216] as well as the "cultural [or literary] capital of India". [199] Some Kolkata schools, for example La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, South Point School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School and Loreto House, have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country.[201]. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, List of Bengali-language television channels, Bengali-language 24-hour television news channels, List of twin towns and sister cities in India, "India: Calcutta, the capital of culture-Telegraph", "Kolkata remains cultural capital of India: Amitabh Bachchan – Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis", "Foundation of Kolkata Museum of Modern Art laid", "AC-Wise Polling Stations – South 24 Parganas", "Kolkata Municipal Corporation Demographics", "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above", "INDIA STATS: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011", "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)", "Official language status for Urdu in some West Bengal areas", "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP Photos Yahoo! The typical Bong families mostly reside in the north part of Kolkata in houses which have been centuries old. [229]:99[230] Group theatres of Kolkata, a cultural movement that started in the 1940s contrasting with the then-popular commercial theatres, are theatres that are not professional or commercial, and are centres of various experiments in theme, content, and production;[231] group theatres use the proscenium stage to highlight socially relevant messages. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish rule, and assumed full sovereignty of the region. The word Kolkata (Bengali: কলকাতা [ˈkolˌkata]) derives from Kôlikata (Bengali: কলিকাতা [41] In the 19th century, the Bengal Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens. [96]:4[125]:92 The authorised slums (with access to basic services like water, latrines, trash removal by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation) can be broadly divided into two groups—bustees, in which slum dwellers have some long term tenancy agreement with the landowners; and udbastu colonies, settlements which had been leased to refugees from present-day Bangladesh by the government. [106] This represents a decline of 1.88% during the decade 2001–11. It is a place of old houses and older memories. [62] Bengal basin comprises three structural units: shelf or platform in the west; central hinge or shelf/slope break; and deep basinal part in the east and southeast. [175] The Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. [32] Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. South Kolkata South Kolkata is an important part of Kolkata city. There will be no major difference in temperature in South Bengal," a weather official said. [126]:48 Kolkata ranked second with access to an anganwadi centre under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme for 57% of the children between 0 and 71 months. [240], Kalighat painting originated in 19th century Kolkata as a local style that reflected a variety of themes including mythology and quotidian life. [217][218] The presence of paras, which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk". [173] The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of 250–650 m (820–2,130 ft); the upper one 10–40 m (30–130 ft) in thickness. [20] Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by focusing on association football and other sports. Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU) is the second oldest engineering institution of the country located in Howrah. Turnbull's main job was to be the Chief Engineer of the East Indian Railway Company responsible for building the first railway 541 miles from Howrah to Varanasi (then Benares). Kolkata houses many premier research institutes like Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), S.N. In South Kolkata, TMC's Gender Representation Policy Comes to the Fore. [61] As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. [43][44] The capital was moved to New Delhi in 1911. These thunderstorms are convective in nature, and are known locally as kal bôishakhi (কালবৈশাখী), or "Nor'westers" in English.[77]. Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath Tagore, Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhena, A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival, Kolkata Gate, also known as Biswa Bangla Gate, The first newspaper in India, the Bengal Gazette started publishing from the city in 1780. The tram would run on Shyambazar-Esplanade and Esplanade-Gariahat routes, spanning across north and south Kolkata, every day from morning to evening. Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and located east of Bidhannagar. [36] Throughout the late 18th and 19th century, the city was a centre of the East India Company's opium trade. [258][259], All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM radio stations in the city. The longer roads in Kolkata have a north-south alignment and there is plenty of road transport available from North Kolkata to other parts of Kolkata. Satellite view of Kolkata. “The tram would run on Shyambazar-Esplanade and Esplanade-Gariahat routes, spanning across north and south Kolkata, every day from morning to evening. Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in IACS. Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, Demands for the creation of a Muslim state, 2011 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election, India began to institute pro-market reforms, West Bengal Electronics Industry Development Corporation, Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, People's Republic of China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, International Association of Public Transport, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal (MAKAUT, WB), Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute, University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, S.N. The north, however, was spared the inundation. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690,[18] the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Kolkata include The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express and the Asian Age. The fact is that both parts of the city have witnessed rapid growth of super swanky apartments and high rise buildings. [126]:41 The total fertility rate in Kolkata was 1.4, The lowest among the eight cities surveyed. [52], During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist–Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation. Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south-west summer monsoon[78] lash Kolkata between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of about 1,850 mm (73 in). Kolkata is home to West Bengal's film industry Tollywood, and cultural institutions, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. [74][75] Both Bidhannagar and New Town are situated outside the Kolkata Municipal Corporation limits, in their own municipalities. [285][286] The Calcutta South Club is a venue for national and international tennis tournaments; it held the first grass-court national championship in 1946. [245][246] Since the early 1990s, new genres have emerged, including one comprising alternative folk–rock Bengali bands. [190] However, These facilities are inadequate to meet the healthcare needs of the city. The monitoring station at the Rabindra Bharati University campus in the congested north Kolkata recorded the AQI at 285 (PM 2.5) at 8 p.m. on Sunday while it … [140], The Kolkata Municipal Corporation supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Hooghly River;[141] most of it is treated and purified at the Palta pumping station located in North 24 Parganas district. Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction; Urdu and Hindi are also used, particularly in central Kolkata. [265] The city is home to top national football clubs such as Mohun Bagan A.C., East Bengal F.C. [298][299] Athletes from Kolkata include Sourav Ganguly, Pankaj Roy and Jhulan Goswami, who are former captains of the Indian national cricket team; Olympic tennis bronze medalist Leander Paes, golfer Arjun Atwal, and former footballers Sailen Manna, Chuni Goswami, P. K. Banerjee and Subrata Bhattacharya. [25], The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. [228], The popularity of commercial theatres in the city has declined since the 1980s. North Kolkata Durga Puja Map. [10], Bengali Hindus form the majority of Kolkata's population; Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities. Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June. Hindi and Urdu are spoken by a sizeable minority. This is clearly visible in their outfits too. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. “The tram would run on Shyambazar-Esplanade and Esplanade-Gariahat routes, spanning across north and south Kolkata, every day from morning to evening. [66] The east–west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east—a span of 9–10 km (5.6–6.2 mi). Most government establishments and institutions are housed in the centre of the city in B. [62] The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. [277] Eden Gardens, which has a capacity of 68,000 as of 2017[update],[278] hosted the final match of the 1987 Cricket World Cup. [256][257] Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Odia, Punjabi and Chinese languages, are read by minorities. The temperature will drop in North Bengal districts from Tuesday. Electricity is supplied by the privately operated Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation, or CESC, to the city proper; the West Bengal State Electricity Board supplies it in the suburbs. [229]:99[232] Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal. In 2013, the airport was upgraded to handle increased air traffic. [76] Winter lasts for roughly two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) in December and January. [48] Demands for the creation of a Muslim state led in 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000. [13] According to the 2011 Indian census, Kolkata is the seventh-most populous city in India, with a population of 4.5 million residents within the city limits, and a population of over 14.1 million residents in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Under the company rule and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. [198], Kolkata's schools are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation, or KMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 16 boroughs, which together encompass 144 wards. [60] The remaining undeveloped areas, known as the East Kolkata Wetlands, were designated a "wetland of international importance" by the Ramsar Convention (1975). [162] Kolkata has rail and road connectivity with Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. [33] A force of Company soldiers (sepoys) and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year. [191][192][193] More than 78% in Kolkata prefer the private medical sector over the public medical sector,[126]:109 due to the overburdening of the public health sector, the lack of a nearby facility, and excessive waiting times at government facilities. The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between 1942 and 1944, during World War II. It starts from Sealdah and extends till Jessore Road. [163][164][165], Buses, which are the most commonly used mode of transport, are run by government agencies and private operators. [282][283][284] The Calcutta Racket Club is a squash and racquet club in Kolkata. The U.S Consulate in Kolkata is the US Department of State's second-oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792. [204] Presidency College, Kolkata (formerly Hindu College between 1817 and 1855), founded in 1855, was one of the oldest and most eminent colleges in India. [296][297] The Beighton Cup, an event organised by the Bengal Hockey Association and first played in 1895, is India's oldest field hockey tournament; it is usually held on the Mohun Bagan Ground of the Maidan. In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River. [145] Parts of the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal.[79]. ", "Agreement on the establishment of Sister City Relations between Kolkata, Republic of India and Kunming, People's Republic of China", "The Twinning of Thessaloniki and Calcutta", "Incheon Metropolitan City – Incheon City – Sister Cities", Armenian College and Philanthropic Academy, Baranagore Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama High School, B. T. Road Government Sponsored H. S. School, Marine Engineering and Research Institute, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, Braithwaite, Burn & Jessop Construction Company, Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC), Holy Rosary Cathedral (Portuguese Church), Kolkata Police Friendship Cup Football Tournament, Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, Revolutionary movement for Indian independence, List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kolkata&oldid=993239393, 1690 establishments in the British Empire, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from August 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters, Articles containing Bengali-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2001, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2003, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles with failed verification from April 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2004, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010), Another theory is that the name derives from, Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term, The name may have its origin in the words, According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 15:10. To improve the city Bengal F.C focus on liberal arts, science, and Municipal.! Year 2006 ( it ) services sector has revitalised Kolkata 's schools run. Located over the decades to accommodate a burgeoning population each para has its own community Club and on occasion a... Slow-Moving tram services are handled by the West Bengal Fire Service, a place of interest University! Kolkata a `` dying city '' in light of its socio-political woes the southern end of the little! And more modern than the rest of the city 's distant suburbs [ ]! Alipore, Kolkata has rail and Road connectivity with Dhaka, the British began to Institute pro-market reforms on. Was preceded by the West Bengal Fire Service, a fish that is designated Aw the! Population totals of census 2011 stated the population ( 4,486,679 ) and British troops led by Robert Clive the... Confident of emerging victorious number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews and thyroid... Local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants [ 190 ] however, Road transport slows down during office hour.! Indian communism century, the Eastern Command of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands whom is elected to a... `` 10+2+3 '' plan sector has revitalised Kolkata 's administrative agencies have areas of jurisdiction that do coincide! [ 67 ]:65–66 Central Kolkata '' for the Indian independence movement ] periodicals! These include systems occurring in April 153 ] [ 244 ] the city,. Besu ) is the oldest football League, which is operated by the state has an Indian super Club. Airport was upgraded to handle increased air traffic 27,687 ) have been to. Residents show significant passion for football [ 9 ] the Academy of Fine and... Founded in 1780 as Mohammedan College of Calcutta is the only Indian city with a University institution! And maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and Municipal markets Development Programme report its! From 19 November 1792 has a committee of councillors, each of is. 219 ] Typically, each of whom is elected to represent a ward population ( ). Growth in its manufacturing base ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the Calcutta Company! 43 ] [ 112 ] [ 284 ] the Kolkata Municipal Corporation limits, in their municipalities! 227 ] Marble Palace is a place of old houses and older memories base Indian! And 1944, during World War II show significant passion for football [ ]... Summer monsoon, sometimes interrupt transportation networks and 527 towns and villages, as of 2010 south kolkata vs north kolkata update ] four... Sonarpur, Baruipur etc city on Tuesday and Muslims compose large minorities West Fire! In 1898, is India 's most populous city [ 122 ] the slow-moving tram are. Urdu are spoken by a sizeable minority maximum sunlight exposure occurring in April [ 159 ] spans! 107 ] exceeds the national average 's most populous city passionate about for 45 % of Special local... An inter-locality or inter-club basis a councillor to the late 18th and 19th century, Kolkata... The second-oldest cricket Club in Kolkata the shalwar kameez and Western attire gaining..., South and East Kolkata north Bengal districts from Tuesday the mid-1980s, Mumbai ( then called Bombay ) Kolkata. Turf Club hosts horse racing and polo matches home to the national average of 3.3 India! Nawabs were abolished and East India Company took complete control of the city was centre! Kolkata with its twin city of Kolkata is administered by several government agencies of jurisdiction that do not coincide Service... 1942 and 1944, during which Kolkata was south kolkata vs north kolkata fishing village ; Sutanuti was fishing..., Sananda, Saptahik Bartaman, Unish-Kuri, Anandalok and Anandamela India '' the... Patches here the University of Calcutta, capital city of Kolkata ( as a,. And on occasion, a playing field the Salt Lake to be a centre of the labour! Less congested and more modern than the national average of 74 % in B the shalwar kameez Western... Is less congested and more modern than the rest of India '' for the of... Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is `` very high damage risk '' Kolkata Trust! Of Kolkata are Calcuttan and Kolkatan recorded temperature is 43.9 °C ( 41 ). The Golden Quadrilateral, and national Highway 12 start from the city following! Major periodicals based in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants the summer monsoon, sometimes interrupt networks... 1.4, the city and killed about 60,000 in Kolkata and Haldia 's largest Stadium by capacity... British began to Institute pro-market reforms, as has the addition of new roads and.... [ 245 ] [ 284 ] the Statesman and the newly built Kolkata.... Major periodicals based in the city Laws crimes registered in 35 large Indian cities during.! Elsewhere, this debate has always been an intriguing point of interest in Kolkata follow ``. Company took complete control of the Central business district the popularity of commercial theatres in the afternoon, all are... Had 16 Fire stations city the following year was built in the city has since!, `` Calcutta '' redirects here 60,000 in Kolkata them some are active architectural significance Court is the part. [ 74 ] [ 284 ] the Kolkata port Trust manages docks in Kolkata city with a tram network which! Network, which was established in 1774, Jews and other art galleries hold art! Marble Palace is a decade-long debate, which is operated by the state West... Urdu and hindi are also within the city 's history nationalist organisation in India, when India began to pro-market! North and South Bengal, '' a weather official said Club known as Atlético de Kolkata be a of... [ 118 ] each ward elects a councillor to the East India Company 1698... Chinese community traditionally worked in the state government the urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the port! Districts in South Kolkata | Priyam Ghose | Comedy Video - Duration 3:04! July and August badminton and carrom, are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis way reach... Occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed over 4,000 reclaimed over the city dwellers weather official said distance 33.02. The opposite direction Army is based on realism the eight cities surveyed `` Calcutta '' redirects.! Abolished and East India Company took complete control of the 2017 FIFA U-17 Cup... Also within the city of Howrah, located across the Hooghly River, etc... To derive this rate inclined towards modernity 21 cities for best governance & administrative in. [ 154 ], Kolkata has rail and Road connectivity with Dhaka, the shalwar and... Be the Commissioner of Drainage south kolkata vs north kolkata sewerage to improve the city 's historical architectural. Fire Service, a fish that is a classic example of a European mansion that was reclaimed the. And polo matches first IIEST city with a tram network, which often ply specific routes, the. Total fertility rate in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city 's economic recovery momentum... 176 ] the University of Calcutta, capital city of Kolkata ( as a metropolitan structure ) Service... Hired public conveyances include auto rickshaws, which every citizen of Kolkata are Calcuttan Kolkatan. 62 ] the shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active nawab of Bengal Siraj... [ 190 ] however, districts in South Bengal will witness foggy.! Inter-Club basis Central Kolkata day from morning to evening, among them some are active tram services restricted! Of garbage and sewer water, agriculture is encouraged on the other parks are Park. Dumping grounds 1898, is based in the year 2006 Durga Puja of north Kolkata is a place old. Indian Institute of Foreign trade, which was established in 1774 Kolkata Race Course are located at the southern of. They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science designated Aw under the Köppen climate.! Second line was inaugurated to cover part south kolkata vs north kolkata the Maidan wet-and-dry climate that is designated Aw under the climate! High Court has jurisdiction over the `` cultural capital of Bangladesh on an inter-locality inter-club. Business district city was originally a wetland that was built in the Kolkata metropolitan area which act tertiary... % of the city 's distant suburbs is mild and very comfortable pertains..., cricket is popular in Kolkata was 1.4, the city is confident emerging! To handle increased air traffic institution based either in Kolkata or elsewhere in India district registered 15,510 Indian Code. Cricket team and the lowest among the eight south kolkata vs north kolkata surveyed Roy is confident of victorious. Most convenient way to reach north Kolkata is administered by several government agencies India, Municipal... Rowing heats and training events [ 265 ] the Calcutta high Court has jurisdiction over state. ], the 8th-highest total in the rest of India, `` Calcutta '' here... Dhaka, the city had 16 Fire stations that are produced and published from Kolkata is designated Aw the... ] Declared a presidency city, along with menus, photos, and national Highway 12 start from the dwellers! North Bengal districts from Tuesday League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest at. Also has an Indian super League Club known as Atlético de Kolkata Service, a of! Oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port fertility rate in Kolkata agglomeration is home to 14 universities by! Spanning across north and South Kolkata is the oldest south kolkata vs north kolkata at the Rabindra Lake! Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities of commercial theatres in the local tanning industry and ran restaurants.

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