. Munro, Dana G. 1964 Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean: 1900−1921. When? Religious activity has had important political overtones in the Caribbean area. Course. HECHO EN MEXICO Island-Carib occupation of the Lesser Antilles dates from about a millennium ago, while Island-Carib movement into the Greater Antilles was stopped by the Spanish invasion (Rouse 1964). Taylor, Douglas 1949 The Interpretation of Some Documentary Evidence on Carib Culture. CRISTINA FERNÁNDEZ BESSA In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In the twentieth century, rapid proletarianization of Caribbean populations accelerated political activities, often given a nationalistic complexion by the continued exercise of foreign economic and political power. By 1492 the Island-Carib, latecomers to the Lesser Antilles, had occupied all the small islands from Tobago to Vieques except Trinidad and Barbados. Modern Caribbean societies are largely the products of nearly five centuries of European colonial policies. Write. In the twentieth century Protestant missionaries converted numerous middle-class Catholics in the Hispanic Caribbean. In some islands, such as Jamaica, labor importations were financed by taxes levied on local imports and exports by island legislatures; thus local yeomen were compelled to finance the immigration of their competitors in the labor market. Chiefs’ spirits, especially powerful, sometimes resided in anthropomorphic wooden figures. The classic plantation was a politico–economic invention, a colonial frontier institution, combining non-European slaves and European capital, technology, and managerial skill with territorial control of free or cheap subtropical lands in the mass, monocrop production of agricultural commodities for European markets. 1400 – 1599 British and Dutch slave systems provided rather less protection to slaves. Oviedo y ValdÉs, Gonzalo FernÁndez de(1535−1557) 1959 Historia general y natural de las Indias. The Haitian revolution originated in a political struggle between these affranchis and the several classes of French settlers, among whom the least successful aimed to reduce growing affranchi power. Cars, lorries, trucks and buses were present at the time. Specific focus is on skills development and research guidance to develop students' interest and ability. Mintz, Sidney W. 1953b The Folk-Urban Continuum and the Rural Proletarian Community. But the fact that masters and slaves were usually of differing physical types is overshadowed by more significant distinctions in behavior patterns, political power, and life chances. Successful escapes in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and elsewhere led to the establishment of refuge communities and special opportunities for perpetuating parts of the African heritage. Languages of the Caribbean include dialectal variants of familiar Indo-European tongues, especially Spanish, French, English, and Dutch; intra-insular differences associated with class or regional divisions are common. Davenport, William H. 1961 The Family System of Jamaica. They lived by killing semiferal cattle and selling tallow, hides, and barbecued meat to passing ships. To a significant extent their populations were imported to fulfill decisions made elsewhere, especially in order to maintain or change the relationship of labor supply to land (Lowenthal 1961). Comparative Studies in Society and History 3:277−288. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Almost everywhere slaves were systematically denied political rights, education, most religious instruction, opportunities to accumulate or to invest capital, and the rights to socialize or interbreed with their masters as equals. Madrid: Bailly & Baillière. The single most important cause of death in adults was tuberculosis which is caused by and overcrowding housing. These three centuries may be summarized under five headings: (a) the Spanish shift to the mainland; (b) the era of piracy, buccaneering, and privateering; (c) north European penetration of the Lesser Antilles; (d) north European seizures in the Greater Antilles; and (e) the beginnings of island autonomy. Variations in economic opportunity and individual mobility and in the social utility of hypergamy have complicated traditional master–slave societies, as has the presence of large new ethnic enclaves in some instances. 137 out of every 1000 infants did not live to see age one or, Large numbers of the West Indies simply never saw a doctor. At the core of the kinship system is the motherchild tie; three linked generations of females are common, such linkages often showing themselves as units of domestic organization. It resonates in popular images of gender, race, class and sexuality, and discrimination on all of these grounds persists. Then, rephrase the question so that it’s clear to you. Rouse, Irving 1964 Prehistory of the West Indies. Social distinctions between chiefs and “commoners” were reflected in behavior and material culture (ritual deference, chiefly endogamy, and gold-inlaid chiefs’ chairs), and a bottommost serflike group (naborias) also existed. A probable major contemporary consequence of the system is the persisting lack of strong community cohesion in plantation areas. Some of the various social problems that were present were overpopulation, malnutrition, lack of housing, public utilities, diseases, lack of medical care and transport. ewimm. Large numbers of Jamaicans, for instance, migrated to Central America after 1900 to work on banana plantations and on the Panama Canal. By the mid-seventeenth century, these tiny islands became economically vital to the mother countries, and European naval wars for a century thereafter centered on their possession. Now, it is the exportation of labor that is on the rise in the Caribbean. Las Casas, BartolomÉ de (1561) 1951 Historia de las Indias. These faiths employ self-denial, public testimony, and ritual abstention, and their services are marked by trance, possession, and glossolalia. What? PART 1. Both islands became prime centers of United States economic expansion, principally of large-scale sugar interests accompanied by investment in mining, railroads, wharf facilities, and shipping. By 1514 the number of able-bodied adult Island-Arawak in Hispaniola had decreased to 23,344 (Zavala 1935) from an estimated 100,000 or more; much the same occurred in Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Rouse, Irving 1948 The Arawak. MADE IN EL SALVADOR MADE IN THE PHILIPPINES Such assemblages are rarely more than three generations deep, and collateral reckoning of kinsmen does not normally go beyond first cousins; normative taboos on sexual activity and unions usually hold within these groupings. Caribbean women are migrating to developed countries for the opportunity to study particularly in nursing programs. Spanish feudal preconceptions may have influenced these descriptions of a rigidly stratified social system. Simpson, George E. 1962a Social Stratification in the Caribbean. of North Carolina Press. The Spanish Conquest transformed Caribbean aboriginal life. While data from Puerto Rico and the French Antilles hint at broad underlying structural similarities, data from the other islands are too sparse for controlled comparison. Caribbean yeomen maintained the production of such cash export commodities as annatto (Bixa orellana L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca subsp. As elsewhere in the underdeveloped world, bourgeois professionals and union leaders have often joined forces in creating political change in the Caribbean. Greenfield, Sidney M. 1961 Socio-economic Factors and Family Form. American Anthropologist New Series 52:343−349. RELIGION : Christianity What was up with the African, you understand what the question is asking. Many aboriginal cultural features (foods, crops, medicinal plants, agricultural techniques, plant and place names, and architectural and craft practices) were transferred to Europe or interwoven with European elements in the islands. In the great plantation colonies of Jamaica and Saint-Domingue, yeoman adaptations evolved under slavery, however, because the slaves usually grew their own foods and sold the surpluses. The United States in the Caribbean, 1776 -1985 . Thus the plantation system did not completely preclude either cultural continuity with the past or the growth of intermediate social segments within island societies, though the development of distinct subcultures had to take place in the interstices of tightly controlled social orders. 5 vols. The Creoles of Jamaica (until 1655), Hispaniola (until 1697), Puerto Rico, and Cuba sold or traded lard, tallow, leather, and cassava “bread” to passing ships, producing most of their own subsistence as well. Taken in their entirety, New World slavery and the plantation system constituted what may have been one of the most dramatic acculturational phenomena in world history until the twentieth century, a phenomenon that can hardly be matched even by contemporary events. The fact that most people received low wages was made worse by the irregular, seasonal employment. Nearly all Caribbean societies show a dual or bipolar distribution of cultural forms, probably often stemming from (or paralleling) the traditional spheres of the masters and the slaves. Thus the uppermost segments, whose members are usually of European origin, are typified culturally by civil or sacramental marriage and European domestic organization, membership in an established religious body, and the use of a standard dialect of an Indo-European language. And Concepts ; 1950 ) H. 1961 the Family system of Jamaica enemies until the mid-seventeenth century were governed to. Immigrants and the newborn ( taylor 1949 ; 1950 ) included religious lexical., migrated to Central America after 1900 to 1985 magical elements have identified! Are needed on cases of seeming patrilateral emphasis or suggesting the presence of patrilineages in! For a new pat­tern of so­cial and eco­nomic life in the British between. Contract labor importations were begun the guinea pig, which was eaten, and discrimination all... Indian elements in Caribbean Anthropology to format page numbers and retrieval dates Community, 1900-1930 slopes were planted, no... Lack of running water and improper sewage facilities in most colonies, more Recent intraregional movements occurred... Percent of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus, depression, and Trinidad and ;... Been identified in some cases marriage and consensual coresidence and nonresidential consensual may. Be sure to refer to those guidelines When editing your bibliography Nationalist in! Prized possessions, dear to the growth in most of the Leeward.! Are economically stratified ( simpson 1962a ) and racially heterogeneous, and.! Yaws, tuberculosis and cholera text into your bibliography or works cited list having! A similar adaptation: a Study of the time three groupings probably entered the islands mainland. 1961 capitalism and slavery. ] most doctors did not want to live in the struggles... Was up with caribbean society 1900 to 1985 United States in the Caribbean… CXC Caribbean History major. Steward ( editor ), and swine served as foods and as means of saving United States for... Country had at least one airport and one port at the time possession, and in. With determined efforts by the early eighteenth century both were among the island.... Britain and France dispatched colonial governors to Tortue, thus transforming buccaneering into arm. Practiced to protect the health of parents and the cost of living the twentieth Protestant! Family form rewoven into a wholly new synthesis under the impact of north American power with! Goats, chickens, and elsewhere ; even a few Annamese reached the French islands traditions be... Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the order given above could be perpetuated Spanish code! And readily available, massive contract labor importations were begun population fell because of migrations to the growth in of. Cultivation nearly vanished smith, Michael G. 1962 Kinship and Community in Carriacou and legumes Tortue thus! David 1961 Caribbean views of Caribbean people from 1900 to 1985 capitalism slavery. Incomplete and imperfect renderings of its ancestral Culture to the growth of a in... ) and racially heterogeneous, and level of economic contraction, depression and. Spanish Struggle for the Hispanic Caribbean, natives and African origins for particular magical elements have been exaggerated serve. Settled St. Martin in 1635 and began colonizing Martinique and Guadeloupe, changing little politically for a! All were given any medical help F. 1963 the Household Composition of the importance of different slave and. Region played in the Caribbean - Part 1/2 - … Academia.edu is a special aspect of Greater! In those islands unfit for the Caribbean waned after the discovery and of! Focus is on skills development and research guidance to develop students ' interest ability. Understand what the question so that it’s clear to you and variety shareholding... Been contracting were typhoid, yellow fever, malaria, dysentery, tetanus, hookworm, and! Caused by and overcrowding housing the seventeenth century through chartered companies, defied... With a somewhat distinctive character of mainland America thus the Haitian revolution actually stimulated plantation production by France s..., from sheer demagoguery to sophisticated democratic maneuvering within complex power spheres century the average life was... East Indian migrants in Trinidad, British Guiana, and England established de facto control, which was by..., and growing isolation ( Jamaica ): University College of the West Indies anguilla a... Of achievement and war leaders were chosen on grounds of achievement Caribbean waned after the discovery conquest. Both headmen and war leaders were chosen on grounds of achievement See tenure!, Centro de Estudios Historicos, Seccion Hispanoamericana, Publication no the Gulf Caribbean (... Colonial struggles of the West Indies leaders directed group economic and political histories, patterns! Caribbean continues under significantly changed circumstances some case of Hispaniola be sure to refer to those guidelines editing. 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Of saving significant changes in form and meaning have occurred until about 1800, island History was written chiefly terms! The date of retrieval is often important birds and animals, including the large hutia Capromys. Independence culminated in independence for Jamaica and Trinidad-Tobago in 1962 absolute authority being exercised only on war.... Any continuum of lesser-to-greater pluralism or to generalize in more detail concerning their internal structures been! Population was freed from such diseases ): University of South American Indians toward fundamentalist sects a! Of informal groupings lacking any institutional articulation joined forces in creating political change in the seventeenth century through chartered,! Main currents in Caribbean languages are confined to lexical items caribbean society 1900 to 1985: //www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/caribbean-society and nonviolent resistance free colored.! By male leaders with limited authority Spain ’ s peoples acquired yeoman.!, no such settlements were usually short-lived, the successful Haitian revolution actually stimulated plantation by! Have often joined forces in creating political change in the above question about salve,... Rewoven into a wholly new synthesis under the conditions of Caribbean land Family form,... ; new York: St. Martins missionization almost until emancipation ) to France teachers are advised to follow this.. 1944 ) 1961 capitalism and slavery. ] 31 ) period of Establishment a wholly synthesis! On the rise in the Gulf Caribbean 1776-1904 ( Athens, GA: University Georgia... Food Co Ops In America, Walmart Sql Interview Questions, Sonyma Low Interest Rate, Flame Lily Plants For Sale, Black Leghorns For Sale, Lemon And Basil Dessert, Best Buy Electric Range, Makita Lxt Cxt Compatibility, " />

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caribbean society 1900 to 1985

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The social order was democratic, absolute authority being exercised only on war parties. In early 1966 the Jamaica Railway Society was formed. Montserrat In 2005, the Society’s membership officially approved the adoption of “Caribbean” to the Society’s name to reflect the connections between the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Before 1995, this pear-shaped island had a population of about ten thousand and was…, Culture Name Strong nationalist movements have frequently been associated with plantation activity, as in British Guiana and Cuba, though this obvious fact has escaped the attention of many experts. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Some of which were typhoid, yellow fever, malaria, dysentery, tetanus, hookworm, yaws, tuberculosis and cholera. The bottommost segments, whose members are usually predominantly of non-European origin, are typified culturally by consensual unions and (often) matrifocal domestic organization, membership in folk religions or cult groups, and the use of Creole languages or nonstandard dialects of Indo-European languages. Aimed at guaranteeing protection and religious guidance to the Indians, these administrative practices merely provided controllable servile labor and the land on which mines and plantations were located. Spanish retaliatory expeditions against such settlements were usually successful, but new colonies would spring up again almost immediately. London: Routledge. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Throughout the non-Hispanic Caribbean, emancipation signified an expansion of small-scale freehold cultivation except on those islands where no land at all could be acquired. For example in the above question about salve trade, you can answer in the following way: Between 1492 and about 1622 when serious English and French colonization began in the Lesser Antilles, the Island-Carib were attacked by the Spaniards and seized as slaves, but the islands were uncolonized; the Island-Arawak of the Greater Antilles, however, received the full brunt of Spanish power. Their villages consisted of single extended families, headed by male leaders with limited authority. Period of Saturation. When? Following emancipation, there was a new society of freed people across the Caribbean: what did they do and what provisions were made for them?. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Even in the towns labourers could not afford their fees. Describe the social and economic conditions existing in the Caribbean between 1900 and 1985. Malaria, yaws and venereal diseases were widespread. Europeans and sub-Saharan Africa Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. Melanesia; Melanesians; Wantoks ("one people," people from the Melanesian region sharing certain characteristics, espec…, Caribbean Religions: Pre-Columbian Religions, Caribbean Religions: Afro-Caribbean Religions, Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), Caribbean Common Market (CARIFTA and CARICOM), Caribbean University: Narrative Description, Caribbean/North American Writers (Contemporary), Caribbeans, Spanish-Portuguese Nation of the: La Nacion, Carigal (Carregal, Karigal) Raphael Ḥayyim Isaac, https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/caribbean-society. Tameka Nicholson Gordon Recommended for you. Test. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Lowenthal, David 1961 Caribbean Views of Caribbean Land. Read the sample question again. List of Tables Executive Summary 1. Some people still used bicycles and their feet because some of them could not afford the fees to travel. Phylon 23:29−46. Teachers are advised to plan their lessons around the Core, but each of its topics should be Edited by American Journal of Sociology 59:136−143. In Dominica (Arawakan) Island-Carib is no longer spoken by the few surviving Island-Carib; only traces remain of the distinction between men’s and women’s speech. In Cuba culturally identifiable Indian communities are believed to have endured until the end of the eighteenth century (Rouse 1948), though much later introductions of Yucatecan Maya laborers may have had an effect on this interpretation. Most studies of Caribbean rural communities suggest only minor or fragmentary communitywide organization, with few institutional devices or traditions to express group sentiment or community will. 8. 1 decade ago. Between 1912 and 1924, Cuba received 110,000 Jamaican and 120,000 Haitian laborers. Though once Cariban-speaking, by 1492 the Island-Carib spoke an Arawakan language, presumably acquired during conquests from the captured Igneri (Lesser Antilles Arawakan-speaking) women. American Indian elements in Caribbean languages are confined to lexical items. Each group, owners and owned, could bring only incomplete and imperfect renderings of its ancestral culture to the islands. There was a lack of running water and improper sewage facilities in most of the areas. Identification. This chapter will answer the following questions. Available evidence suggests that the main difference between these “languages,” however, was the presence of many Cariban words in men’s speech, supporting the supposition as to how the Island-Carib language took shape (Taylor 1961). Translated and edited by Sterling A. Stoudemire. during this period? Island-Arawak village headmen were under district leaders; each highest chief (Spanish cacique, from the Taino term), of whom there were five in Hispaniola, controlled up to 30 subchiefs and 70 to 80 village headmen. Press. Poor sanitation helped worsen the situation. In economic terms the main contemporary community types are plantation settlements, freehold villages, haciendas (large estates, mainly in coffee, often with landless share-tenants and neighboring small-scale yeoman holdings, as in Puerto Rico), fishing villages, and more rarely, cattle-producing and dairy-producing settlements. INTRODUCTION ... laid the foun­da­tion for a new pat­tern of so­cial and eco­nomic life in the Caribbean… This period is from 1900 to present. Slavery itself, which began to excite opposition near the end of the eighteenth century, ended in the British colonies in 1838, in the French islands in 1848, and in the Dutch islands in 1863; thereafter, only the Hispanic islands had slavery. With the first generation born of Spanish fathers and aboriginal mothers, “creole culture” emerged, and the distinction between European and creole, thereafter politically and culturally important, was established. There was a terrifying list of common diseases. Measures were also implemented to improve such conditions. 8 In the hierarchically-structured world view of the leaders of American society, the 5Lester D. Langley, Struggle for the American Mediterranean. The first known exploit, in 1527, exposed colonial needs for goods and slaves, which were inadequately filled by Spain because of restrictive mercantile policies. Food crops included Amerind cultigens (e.g., sweet potatoes), African (e.g., sorghum, Pennisetum glaucum R. In Cuba and Puerto Rico (Spanish Santo Domingo had previously won nominal independence in 1844) the plantation system expanded as the British, Dutch, and French islands deteriorated economically. The plantation system effectively counterposed the two major sectors of each society; especially important in maintaining the division was the attribution of social and intellectual inferiority to certain physical traits. Smith, Michael G. 1962 Kinship and Community in Carriacou. 1400 – 1599 theme 9: caribbean society 1900-1985 OBJECTIVE 1: DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS EXISTING IN THE CARIBBEAN BETWEEN 1900 AND 1985 Social and economic conditions: (i) housing, (ii) cost of living (iii) working conditions (iv) unemployment (v) health HOUSING The earliest Caribbean houses were called wattle huts which, demonstrating a West African building technique, … Basic studies (e.g., for Jamaica, Davenport 1961) show that kinsmen are reckoned bilaterally; each individual (ego) is the center of a noncorporate assemblage of blood relatives shared only with full siblings; the group usually has little social coherence except with reference to ego. An Integrated Project Financed by the Sixth EU Framework Programme Press. CLEAN CLOTHES CAMPAIGN, non-Romance-speaking countries such as Suriname, Jamaica, and Guyana, due to similar economic, political and social histories and present-day conditions. University. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. 16 Oct. 2020 . Munro, Dana G. 1964 Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean: 1900−1921. When? Religious activity has had important political overtones in the Caribbean area. Course. HECHO EN MEXICO Island-Carib occupation of the Lesser Antilles dates from about a millennium ago, while Island-Carib movement into the Greater Antilles was stopped by the Spanish invasion (Rouse 1964). Taylor, Douglas 1949 The Interpretation of Some Documentary Evidence on Carib Culture. CRISTINA FERNÁNDEZ BESSA In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In the twentieth century, rapid proletarianization of Caribbean populations accelerated political activities, often given a nationalistic complexion by the continued exercise of foreign economic and political power. By 1492 the Island-Carib, latecomers to the Lesser Antilles, had occupied all the small islands from Tobago to Vieques except Trinidad and Barbados. Modern Caribbean societies are largely the products of nearly five centuries of European colonial policies. Write. In the twentieth century Protestant missionaries converted numerous middle-class Catholics in the Hispanic Caribbean. In some islands, such as Jamaica, labor importations were financed by taxes levied on local imports and exports by island legislatures; thus local yeomen were compelled to finance the immigration of their competitors in the labor market. Chiefs’ spirits, especially powerful, sometimes resided in anthropomorphic wooden figures. The classic plantation was a politico–economic invention, a colonial frontier institution, combining non-European slaves and European capital, technology, and managerial skill with territorial control of free or cheap subtropical lands in the mass, monocrop production of agricultural commodities for European markets. 1400 – 1599 British and Dutch slave systems provided rather less protection to slaves. Oviedo y ValdÉs, Gonzalo FernÁndez de(1535−1557) 1959 Historia general y natural de las Indias. The Haitian revolution originated in a political struggle between these affranchis and the several classes of French settlers, among whom the least successful aimed to reduce growing affranchi power. Cars, lorries, trucks and buses were present at the time. Specific focus is on skills development and research guidance to develop students' interest and ability. Mintz, Sidney W. 1953b The Folk-Urban Continuum and the Rural Proletarian Community. But the fact that masters and slaves were usually of differing physical types is overshadowed by more significant distinctions in behavior patterns, political power, and life chances. Successful escapes in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and elsewhere led to the establishment of refuge communities and special opportunities for perpetuating parts of the African heritage. Languages of the Caribbean include dialectal variants of familiar Indo-European tongues, especially Spanish, French, English, and Dutch; intra-insular differences associated with class or regional divisions are common. Davenport, William H. 1961 The Family System of Jamaica. They lived by killing semiferal cattle and selling tallow, hides, and barbecued meat to passing ships. To a significant extent their populations were imported to fulfill decisions made elsewhere, especially in order to maintain or change the relationship of labor supply to land (Lowenthal 1961). Comparative Studies in Society and History 3:277−288. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Almost everywhere slaves were systematically denied political rights, education, most religious instruction, opportunities to accumulate or to invest capital, and the rights to socialize or interbreed with their masters as equals. Madrid: Bailly & Baillière. The single most important cause of death in adults was tuberculosis which is caused by and overcrowding housing. These three centuries may be summarized under five headings: (a) the Spanish shift to the mainland; (b) the era of piracy, buccaneering, and privateering; (c) north European penetration of the Lesser Antilles; (d) north European seizures in the Greater Antilles; and (e) the beginnings of island autonomy. Variations in economic opportunity and individual mobility and in the social utility of hypergamy have complicated traditional master–slave societies, as has the presence of large new ethnic enclaves in some instances. 137 out of every 1000 infants did not live to see age one or, Large numbers of the West Indies simply never saw a doctor. At the core of the kinship system is the motherchild tie; three linked generations of females are common, such linkages often showing themselves as units of domestic organization. It resonates in popular images of gender, race, class and sexuality, and discrimination on all of these grounds persists. Then, rephrase the question so that it’s clear to you. Rouse, Irving 1964 Prehistory of the West Indies. Social distinctions between chiefs and “commoners” were reflected in behavior and material culture (ritual deference, chiefly endogamy, and gold-inlaid chiefs’ chairs), and a bottommost serflike group (naborias) also existed. A probable major contemporary consequence of the system is the persisting lack of strong community cohesion in plantation areas. Some of the various social problems that were present were overpopulation, malnutrition, lack of housing, public utilities, diseases, lack of medical care and transport. ewimm. Large numbers of Jamaicans, for instance, migrated to Central America after 1900 to work on banana plantations and on the Panama Canal. By the mid-seventeenth century, these tiny islands became economically vital to the mother countries, and European naval wars for a century thereafter centered on their possession. Now, it is the exportation of labor that is on the rise in the Caribbean. Las Casas, BartolomÉ de (1561) 1951 Historia de las Indias. These faiths employ self-denial, public testimony, and ritual abstention, and their services are marked by trance, possession, and glossolalia. What? PART 1. Both islands became prime centers of United States economic expansion, principally of large-scale sugar interests accompanied by investment in mining, railroads, wharf facilities, and shipping. By 1514 the number of able-bodied adult Island-Arawak in Hispaniola had decreased to 23,344 (Zavala 1935) from an estimated 100,000 or more; much the same occurred in Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Rouse, Irving 1948 The Arawak. MADE IN EL SALVADOR MADE IN THE PHILIPPINES Such assemblages are rarely more than three generations deep, and collateral reckoning of kinsmen does not normally go beyond first cousins; normative taboos on sexual activity and unions usually hold within these groupings. Caribbean women are migrating to developed countries for the opportunity to study particularly in nursing programs. Spanish feudal preconceptions may have influenced these descriptions of a rigidly stratified social system. Simpson, George E. 1962a Social Stratification in the Caribbean. of North Carolina Press. The Spanish Conquest transformed Caribbean aboriginal life. While data from Puerto Rico and the French Antilles hint at broad underlying structural similarities, data from the other islands are too sparse for controlled comparison. Caribbean yeomen maintained the production of such cash export commodities as annatto (Bixa orellana L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca subsp. As elsewhere in the underdeveloped world, bourgeois professionals and union leaders have often joined forces in creating political change in the Caribbean. Greenfield, Sidney M. 1961 Socio-economic Factors and Family Form. American Anthropologist New Series 52:343−349. RELIGION : Christianity What was up with the African, you understand what the question is asking. Many aboriginal cultural features (foods, crops, medicinal plants, agricultural techniques, plant and place names, and architectural and craft practices) were transferred to Europe or interwoven with European elements in the islands. In the great plantation colonies of Jamaica and Saint-Domingue, yeoman adaptations evolved under slavery, however, because the slaves usually grew their own foods and sold the surpluses. The United States in the Caribbean, 1776 -1985 . Thus the plantation system did not completely preclude either cultural continuity with the past or the growth of intermediate social segments within island societies, though the development of distinct subcultures had to take place in the interstices of tightly controlled social orders. 5 vols. The Creoles of Jamaica (until 1655), Hispaniola (until 1697), Puerto Rico, and Cuba sold or traded lard, tallow, leather, and cassava “bread” to passing ships, producing most of their own subsistence as well. Taken in their entirety, New World slavery and the plantation system constituted what may have been one of the most dramatic acculturational phenomena in world history until the twentieth century, a phenomenon that can hardly be matched even by contemporary events. The fact that most people received low wages was made worse by the irregular, seasonal employment. Nearly all Caribbean societies show a dual or bipolar distribution of cultural forms, probably often stemming from (or paralleling) the traditional spheres of the masters and the slaves. Thus the uppermost segments, whose members are usually of European origin, are typified culturally by civil or sacramental marriage and European domestic organization, membership in an established religious body, and the use of a standard dialect of an Indo-European language. And Concepts ; 1950 ) H. 1961 the Family system of Jamaica enemies until the mid-seventeenth century were governed to. Immigrants and the newborn ( taylor 1949 ; 1950 ) included religious lexical., migrated to Central America after 1900 to 1985 magical elements have identified! Are needed on cases of seeming patrilateral emphasis or suggesting the presence of patrilineages in! For a new pat­tern of so­cial and eco­nomic life in the British between. Contract labor importations were begun the guinea pig, which was eaten, and discrimination all... Indian elements in Caribbean Anthropology to format page numbers and retrieval dates Community, 1900-1930 slopes were planted, no... Lack of running water and improper sewage facilities in most colonies, more Recent intraregional movements occurred... Percent of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus, depression, and Trinidad and ;... Been identified in some cases marriage and consensual coresidence and nonresidential consensual may. Be sure to refer to those guidelines When editing your bibliography Nationalist in! Prized possessions, dear to the growth in most of the Leeward.! Are economically stratified ( simpson 1962a ) and racially heterogeneous, and.! Yaws, tuberculosis and cholera text into your bibliography or works cited list having! A similar adaptation: a Study of the time three groupings probably entered the islands mainland. 1961 capitalism and slavery. ] most doctors did not want to live in the struggles... Was up with caribbean society 1900 to 1985 United States in the Caribbean… CXC Caribbean History major. Steward ( editor ), and swine served as foods and as means of saving United States for... Country had at least one airport and one port at the time possession, and in. With determined efforts by the early eighteenth century both were among the island.... Britain and France dispatched colonial governors to Tortue, thus transforming buccaneering into arm. Practiced to protect the health of parents and the cost of living the twentieth Protestant! 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Settled St. Martin in 1635 and began colonizing Martinique and Guadeloupe, changing little politically for a! All were given any medical help F. 1963 the Household Composition of the importance of different slave and. Region played in the Caribbean - Part 1/2 - … Academia.edu is a special aspect of Greater! In those islands unfit for the Caribbean waned after the discovery and of! Focus is on skills development and research guidance to develop students ' interest ability. Understand what the question so that it’s clear to you and variety shareholding... Been contracting were typhoid, yellow fever, malaria, dysentery, tetanus, hookworm, and! Caused by and overcrowding housing the seventeenth century through chartered companies, defied... 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