. Munro, Dana G. 1964 Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean: 1900−1921. When? Religious activity has had important political overtones in the Caribbean area. Course. HECHO EN MEXICO
Island-Carib occupation of the Lesser Antilles dates from about a millennium ago, while Island-Carib movement into the Greater Antilles was stopped by the Spanish invasion (Rouse 1964). Taylor, Douglas 1949 The Interpretation of Some Documentary Evidence on Carib Culture. CRISTINA FERNÁNDEZ BESSA
In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In the twentieth century, rapid proletarianization of Caribbean populations accelerated political activities, often given a nationalistic complexion by the continued exercise of foreign economic and political power. By 1492 the Island-Carib, latecomers to the Lesser Antilles, had occupied all the small islands from Tobago to Vieques except Trinidad and Barbados. Modern Caribbean societies are largely the products of nearly five centuries of European colonial policies. Write. In the twentieth century Protestant missionaries converted numerous middle-class Catholics in the Hispanic Caribbean. In some islands, such as Jamaica, labor importations were financed by taxes levied on local imports and exports by island legislatures; thus local yeomen were compelled to finance the immigration of their competitors in the labor market. Chiefs’ spirits, especially powerful, sometimes resided in anthropomorphic wooden figures. The classic plantation was a politico–economic invention, a colonial frontier institution, combining non-European slaves and European capital, technology, and managerial skill with territorial control of free or cheap subtropical lands in the mass, monocrop production of agricultural commodities for European markets.
1400 â€“ 1599 British and Dutch slave systems provided rather less protection to slaves. Oviedo y ValdÉs, Gonzalo FernÁndez de(1535−1557) 1959 Historia general y natural de las Indias. The Haitian revolution originated in a political struggle between these affranchis and the several classes of French settlers, among whom the least successful aimed to reduce growing affranchi power. Cars, lorries, trucks and buses were present at the time. Specific focus is on skills development and research guidance to develop students' interest and ability. Mintz, Sidney W. 1953b The Folk-Urban Continuum and the Rural Proletarian Community. But the fact that masters and slaves were usually of differing physical types is overshadowed by more significant distinctions in behavior patterns, political power, and life chances. Successful escapes in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and elsewhere led to the establishment of refuge communities and special opportunities for perpetuating parts of the African heritage.
Languages of the Caribbean include dialectal variants of familiar Indo-European tongues, especially Spanish, French, English, and Dutch; intra-insular differences associated with class or regional divisions are common. Davenport, William H. 1961 The Family System of Jamaica. They lived by killing semiferal cattle and selling tallow, hides, and barbecued meat to passing ships. To a significant extent their populations were imported to fulfill decisions made elsewhere, especially in order to maintain or change the relationship of labor supply to land (Lowenthal 1961). Comparative Studies in Society and History 3:277−288. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Almost everywhere slaves were systematically denied political rights, education, most religious instruction, opportunities to accumulate or to invest capital, and the rights to socialize or interbreed with their masters as equals. Madrid: Bailly & Baillière. The single most important cause of death in adults was tuberculosis which is caused by and overcrowding housing. These three centuries may be summarized under five headings: (a) the Spanish shift to the mainland; (b) the era of piracy, buccaneering, and privateering; (c) north European penetration of the Lesser Antilles; (d) north European seizures in the Greater Antilles; and (e) the beginnings of island autonomy. Variations in economic opportunity and individual mobility and in the social utility of hypergamy have complicated traditional master–slave societies, as has the presence of large new ethnic enclaves in some instances. 137 out of every 1000 infants did not live to see age one or, Large numbers of the West Indies simply never saw a doctor. At the core of the kinship system is the motherchild tie; three linked generations of females are common, such linkages often showing themselves as units of domestic organization. It resonates in popular images of gender, race, class and sexuality, and discrimination on all of these grounds persists. Then, rephrase the question so that itâ€™s clear to you. Rouse, Irving 1964 Prehistory of the West Indies. Social distinctions between chiefs and “commoners” were reflected in behavior and material culture (ritual deference, chiefly endogamy, and gold-inlaid chiefs’ chairs), and a bottommost serflike group (naborias) also existed. A probable major contemporary consequence of the system is the persisting lack of strong community cohesion in plantation areas. Some of the various social problems that were present were overpopulation, malnutrition, lack of housing, public utilities, diseases, lack of medical care and transport. ewimm. Large numbers of Jamaicans, for instance, migrated to Central America after 1900 to work on banana plantations and on the Panama Canal. By the mid-seventeenth century, these tiny islands became economically vital to the mother countries, and European naval wars for a century thereafter centered on their possession. Now, it is the exportation of labor that is on the rise in the Caribbean. Las Casas, BartolomÉ de (1561) 1951 Historia de las Indias. These faiths employ self-denial, public testimony, and ritual abstention, and their services are marked by trance, possession, and glossolalia. What? PART 1. Both islands became prime centers of United States economic expansion, principally of large-scale sugar interests accompanied by investment in mining, railroads, wharf facilities, and shipping. By 1514 the number of able-bodied adult Island-Arawak in Hispaniola had decreased to 23,344 (Zavala 1935) from an estimated 100,000 or more; much the same occurred in Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Rouse, Irving 1948 The Arawak. MADE IN EL SALVADOR MADE IN THE PHILIPPINES
Such assemblages are rarely more than three generations deep, and collateral reckoning of kinsmen does not normally go beyond first cousins; normative taboos on sexual activity and unions usually hold within these groupings. Caribbean women are migrating to developed countries for the opportunity to study particularly in nursing programs. Spanish feudal preconceptions may have influenced these descriptions of a rigidly stratified social system. Simpson, George E. 1962a Social Stratification in the Caribbean. of North Carolina Press. The Spanish Conquest transformed Caribbean aboriginal life. While data from Puerto Rico and the French Antilles hint at broad underlying structural similarities, data from the other islands are too sparse for controlled comparison.
Caribbean yeomen maintained the production of such cash export commodities as annatto (Bixa orellana L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca subsp. As elsewhere in the underdeveloped world, bourgeois professionals and union leaders have often joined forces in creating political change in the Caribbean. Greenfield, Sidney M. 1961 Socio-economic Factors and Family Form. American Anthropologist New Series 52:343−349. RELIGION : Christianity What was up with the African, you understand what the question is asking. Many aboriginal cultural features (foods, crops, medicinal plants, agricultural techniques, plant and place names, and architectural and craft practices) were transferred to Europe or interwoven with European elements in the islands. In the great plantation colonies of Jamaica and Saint-Domingue, yeoman adaptations evolved under slavery, however, because the slaves usually grew their own foods and sold the surpluses. The United States in the Caribbean, 1776 -1985 . Thus the plantation system did not completely preclude either cultural continuity with the past or the growth of intermediate social segments within island societies, though the development of distinct subcultures had to take place in the interstices of tightly controlled social orders. 5 vols. The Creoles of Jamaica (until 1655), Hispaniola (until 1697), Puerto Rico, and Cuba sold or traded lard, tallow, leather, and cassava “bread” to passing ships, producing most of their own subsistence as well. Taken in their entirety, New World slavery and the plantation system constituted what may have been one of the most dramatic acculturational phenomena in world history until the twentieth century, a phenomenon that can hardly be matched even by contemporary events. The fact that most people received low wages was made worse by the irregular, seasonal employment. 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